Punjab | Panjab (land of “five rivers”; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi))

Sep 9, 2017 by

Punjab | Panjab (land of “five rivers”; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi))
Punjab | Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi))

The Punjab (/pʌnˈdʒɑːb/ (About this sound listen), /-ˈdʒæb/, /ˈpʌndʒɑːb/, /-dʒæb/), also spelled Panjab (land of “five rivers”; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi)), is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. Not being a political unit, the boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

Until the Partition of India in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, and Chandigarh, and the Pakistani regions of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south.

The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, and their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Punjab region are Islam, Sikhism, and Hinduism. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism. The Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, and Indo-Scythians, and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Pashtuns, British, and others. The foreign invaders mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region, which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions.


 Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi))Etymology

Panjab (land of “five rivers”; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi))Etymology

The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu, the vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean.The later name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words,Panj (five) and āb (water), introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire. Punjab thus means “The Land of Five Waters”, referring to the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas. All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Chenab being the largest.


Physical geography
There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but also includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.

1947 definition
The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the then British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes the Punjab province and Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.

Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is very diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert.


3300–1500 BCE: Harappan civilisation
1500–1000 BCE: (Rigvedic) Vedic civilisation
1000–500 BCE: Middle and late Vedic Period
599 BCE: Birth of Mahavira
567–487 BCE: Time of Gautama Buddha
550 BCE – 600 CE: Buddhism remained prevalent
326 BCE: Alexander’s Invasion of Punjab
322–298 BCE: Chandragupta I, Maurya period
273–232 BCE: Reign of Ashoka
125–160 BCE: Rise of the Sakas
2 BCE: Beginning of Rule of the Sakas
45–180: Rule of the Kushans
320–550: Gupta Empire
500: Hunnic Invasion
510–650: Vardhana’s Era
711–713: Muhammad bin Qasim conquers Sindh and small part of Punjab region
713–1200: Rajput states, Kabul Shahi & small Muslim kingdoms
1206–1290: Mamluk dynasty established by Mohammad Ghori
1290–1320: Khilji dynasty established by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji
1320–1413: Tughlaq dynasty established by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq
1414–1451: Sayyid dynasty established by Khizr Khan
1451–1526: Lodhi dynasty established by Bahlul Khan Lodhi
1469–1539: Guru Nanak
1526–1707: Mughal rule
1526–1530: Zaheeruddin Muhammad Babur
1530–1540: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun
1540–1545: Sher Shah Suri of Afghanistan
1545–1554: Islam Shah Suri
1555–1556: Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun
1556–1556: Hem Chandra Vikramaditya
1556–1605: Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar
1605–1627: Nooruddin Muhammad Jahangir
1627–1658: Shahaabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan
1658–1707: Mohiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir
1539–1675: Period of 8 Sikh Gurus from Guru Angad Dev to Guru Tegh Bahadur
1675–1708: Guru Gobind Singh (10th Sikh Guru)
1699: Birth of the Khalsa
1708–1713: Conquests of Banda Bahadur
1722: Birth of Ahmed Shah Durrani, either in Multan in Mughal Empire or Herat in Afghanistan
1714–1759: Sikh chiefs (Sardars) war against Afghans & Mughal Governors
1739: Invasion by Nader Shah and defeat of weakened Mughal Empire
1747–1772: Durrani Empire led by Ahmad Shah Durrani
1756–1759: Sikh and Maratha Empire cooperation in the Punjab
1761: The Third Battle of Panipat, between the Durrani Empire against the Maratha Empire.
1762: 2nd massacre (Ghalughara) from Ahmed Shah’s 2nd invasion
1765–1801: Rise of the Sikh Misls which gained control of significant swathes of Punjab
1801–1839: Sikh Empire also known as Sarkar Khalsa, Rule by Maharaja Ranjit Singh
1845–1846: First Anglo-Sikh War
1846: Jammu joined with the new state of Jammu and Kashmir
1848–1849: Second Anglo-Sikh War
1849: Complete annexation of Punjab into British India
1849–1947: British rule
1901: Peshawar and adjoining districts separated from the Punjab Province
1911: Parts of Delhi separated from Punjab Province
1947: The Partition of India divided Punjab into two parts. The Eastern part (with two rivers) became the Indian Punjab and the Western part (three rivers) the Pakistan Punjab
1966: Indian Punjab divided into three parts: Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh
1973–1995: Punjab insurgency